In her Journal of Community Practice
article, Notes from the Field: Learning Cultural Humility Through Critical Incidents and Central Challenges in Community-Based Participatory Research
, Prof. Laurie Ross states, "Experiential forms of teaching and learning, including service learning and community-based research, can potentially be transformative for both students and communities." Prof. Ross states that cultural humility has three foci: knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Using Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) as a framework, community development professionals have identified Cultural Humility as a subset of competence that challenges the practitioners' beliefs and attitudes about people who are different. Cultural humility results from developing forms of knowledge about:
1. Health Disparities: awareness of the scope the ways in which health disparities are the result of social, political and economic dynamics that have resulted in beliefs and behaviors within communities;
2. Attitudes and Behaviors: Practitioners' need to be aware of their own subconscious and conscious bias and stereotyping;
3. Culturally Humble Skills: These include nonauthoritarian communication, cross-cultural communication fluidity and the ability to engage in participatory decision-making with community partners.