Frederick K. Cox International Law Center
Frederick K. Cox International Law Center





Case Western Reserve University School of Law
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Cleveland Priniciples

"JURIST" Op Ed - Cleveland Principles, McCain Anti-Torture Amendment
News article - Cleveland Principles, McCain Anti-Torture Amendment
"Torture & the War on Terror" 10.7.05 symposium WEBCAST


The CLEVELAND PRINCIPLES of International Law on the Detention & Treatment
of Persons in Connection with “The Global War on Terror”

Introduction
In the context of revelations about the mistreatment of detainees at U.S. detention centers in Guantanamo Bay, Iraq, and Afghanistan; the practice of “irregular rendition” as a means of outsourcing torture; the existence of US-created “black sites” where “ghost detainees” are interrogated abroad; and the content of the leaked “White House Torture memos” – the Cleveland Principles were adopted by the undersigned experts who took part in the “Torture and the War on Terror” Conference at Case Western Reserve University School of Law in Cleveland, Ohio, on October 7, 2005. The Principles have been endorsed by the numerous other experts whose names are also listed below. The undersigned include current and former high-ranking government, military, and international organization officials, prominent academics, and leading practitioners in the field – representing all ends of the political spectrum. The Principles are intended as a clear restatement, written in plain English, of the fundamental international legal rules that apply to the treatment of persons in connection with the so-called “Global War on Terror.” The goal was to produce a text that would be easy for the American public, members of the military, and members of Congress to understand – a text that would unambiguously spell out that in the context of the Global War on Terror, there is no law-free zone, torture can never be justified; outsourcing torture is unlawful; and that government personnel may be criminally liable for involvement in acts of torture.

The Cleveland Principles:

Principle 1: With respect to the “Global War on Terror,” there is no law-free zone.

•International Law (which includes International Humanitarian Law, International Human Rights Law, and International Criminal Law) applies to all contexts and persons in the “Global War on Terror.”

•The “Global War on Terror” is not in its entirety an armed conflict. When, and for so long as, the “Global War on Terror” does manifest itself in armed conflict, the rights of persons detained and the obligations of detaining authorities, are governed by International Humanitarian Law, including the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions.

•International Human Rights Law, including the Convention Against Torture and the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, also applies to situations of armed conflict, to the extent that its provisions are not inconsistent with applicable international humanitarian law.

•Whenever persons are detained outside the factual framework of armed conflict, international humanitarian law is not applicable and international human rights law, including the Convention Against Torture and the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, applies instead.

Principle 2: Whenever there is any doubt about whether an individual apprehended in the Global War on Terror is entitled to Prisoner of War status, the decision must be made on a case-by-case basis by a competent tribunal.

•Persons who do not qualify for POW status under the Third Geneva Convention are still entitled to humane treatment and the other applicable guarantees of the Fourth Geneva Convention.

•In addition, such persons must not be subject to acts of acts of torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, in accordance with the Torture Convention.

Principle 3: Nothing in the “Global War on Terror” can justify violating the prohibition on committing acts of torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.

•Interrogation in the context of the “Global War on Terror,” whether conducted by military personnel or intelligence agents, and whether conducted inside or outside of the State’s territory, must never cross the boundaries of humane treatment.

Principle 4: Use of so-called “irregular rendition” as a means of outsourcing torture to third countries is unlawful.

•No person acting as an agent of a government may participate in the transfer of any person to any country for interrogation where there are substantial grounds for believing that the person would be in danger of being subject to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.

•Diplomatic assurances from the receiving State that the person will not be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment are not a sufficient basis upon which it may be determined that such treatment or punishment will not be imposed, where the receiving State has demonstrated a history of engaging in such treatment.

Principle 5: Governments and Government personnel are obligated to strictly adhere to the international law applicable to the “Global War on Terror” as set forth in the above principles.

•States are responsible under international law for violations of these principles committed by the Government’s personnel or agents, or by private parties exercising traditional government functions with the Government’s acquiescence, whether the act occurs in the territory of the State or outside the territory of the State.

•Persons who breach or order violations of these principles, or who aid and abet the breach of these principles, or who fail to punish subordinates who have committed breaches of these principles, may face individual criminal liability at home and/or in foreign or international courts.


The Cleveland Principles were drafted and adopted by the following experts who participated in the “Torture and the War on Terrorism” Conference at Case Western Reserve University School of Law on October 7, 2005:

Jose E. Alvarez, Hamilton Fish Professor of International Law and Diplomacy at Columbia University School of Law, and former Attorney Adviser, Office of the Legal Adviser of the U.S. Department of State

Diane Marie Amann, Professor of Law, University of California, Davis, School of Law

M. Cherif Bassiouni, Distinguished Research Professor of Law and President of the Human Rights Law Institute at DePaul University, formerly U.N. Rapporteur for Afghanistan, UN Commission on Human Rights Independent Expert on the Rights to Restitution, Compensation and Rehabilitation for Victims of Grave Violations of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and Chairman of the U.N. Committee of Experts to Investigate Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Former Yugoslavia

Nathaniel Berman, Professor, Brooklyn Law School

William M. Carter, Jr., Associate Professor of Law specializing in Human Rights Law, Case Western Reserve University School of Law

Roger S. Clark, Board of Governors Professor of Law, Rutgers School of Law, Camden
 
Hiram E. Chodosh, Associate Dean and Joseph C. Hostetler-Baker & Hostetler Professor of Law, Case Reserve University School of Law

Laura Dickinson, Associate Professor of Law, University of Connecticut School of Law, formerly Senior Policy Adviser to the Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, and law clerk to Justice Harry A. Blackmun

Richard Goldstone, former Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugosalvia and Rwanda and former Justice of the South Africa Constitutional Court

Amos Guiora, Professor of Law and Director, Institute for Global Security Law and Policy, Case Western Reserve University School of Law, formerly Judge Advocate General of the Israeli Defense Force

Jessie Hill, Assistant Professor of Law and Assistant Director, Institute for Global Security Law and Policy, Case Western Reserve University School of Law, formerly Trial Attorney for the American Civil Liberties Union

Admiral (ret.) John Hutson, Dean of Franklin Pierce Law Center, formerly Judge Advocate General of the U.S. Navy

Robert P. Lawry, Professor of Law and Director of the Center for Professional Ethics, Case Western Reserve University

Elisa Massimino, Washington Director of Human Rights First

Jeff McMahan, Professor of Philosophy, Rutgers University

Brian C. Murphy, Attorney at Law, U.S. Department of State (retired)

Col. (Ret.) Michael Newton, Acting Professor of Clinical Law, Vanderbilt University School of Law, formerly Deputy to the Ambassador at Large for War Crimes Issues, U.S. Department of State.

Ellen Podgor, Culverhouse Chair 2005-06 and Visiting Professor of Law, Stetson Law School, Professor of Law, Georgia State University College of Law

Leila Nadya Sadat, Henry H. Oberschelp Professor of Law, Washington University School of Law, formerly Federal Commissioner on the US Commission on International Religious Freedom

William Schabas, Director of the Irish Centre for Human Rights, and member of the International Truth Commission for Sierra Leone

Michael Scharf, Professor of Law and Director of the Frederick K. Cox International Law Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Law, formerly Counsel to the Counter-Terrorism Bureau and Attorney-Adviser for United Nations Affairs at the U.S. Department of State

Robert Strassfeld, Professor of Law, Case Western Reserve University School of Law

The following other international law experts have endorsed the Cleveland Principles:

William J. Aceves, Professor of Law, California Western School of Law

Christian Ahlund, Executive Director, International Legal Assistance Consortium (ILAC), Stockholm, Sweden

Dapo Akande, University Lecturer in Public International Law & Fellow, St Peter’s College

Sarah A. Altschuller, Attorney at Law, Foley Hoag LLP

Theodore J. Antoine, Degan Professor of Law, University of Michigan

Donna E. Arzt, Professor, Dean’s Distinguished Research Scholar and Director, Center for Global Law and Practice, Syracuse University College of Law Syracuse

Hervé Ascensio, Professor of Law, University of Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne

Nancy L. Ashton, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Richard Stockton College of New Jersey

Michael Avery, President, National Lawyers Guild, Professor, Suffolk Law School

Barbara Bader-Aldave, Loran L. Stewart Professor of Law, University of Oregon 

James Francis Bailey, III, Professor of Law Emeritus and Director Emeritus of the Ruth Lilly Law Library, Indiana University School of Law at Indianapolis

Fred Baumann, Professor of Political Science, Kenyon College

Elena A. Baylis, Assistant Professor, University of Pittsburgh School of Law

Steve Becker, Adjunct Professor of Law, DePaul University College of Law

Charles Biblowit, Professor, St. John’s University School of Law

Richard Bilder, Foley & Lardner Emeritus Professor of Law, University of Wisconsin Law School Madison

Tamar R. Birckhead, Clinical Assistant Professor of Law, UNC School of Law

David Birenbaum, Senior Scholar Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars; Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson

Christopher Blakesley, The Cobeaga Tomlinson Professor of Law, William S. Boyd School of Law, University of Nevada Las Vegas

Jeff Bleich, Partner, Munger, Tolles & Olson LLP

M. Gregg Bloche, M.D. J.D., Visiting Fellow, The Brookings Institute, Professor of Law, Bloomberg School of Public Health Johns Hopkins University

Carolyn P. Blum, Clinical Professor of Law Emeritus, Boalt Hall Law School

Jack A. Blum, Esq., Partner, Lobel Novins & Lamont

Patricia Blyth, Attorney at Law, Law Office of Patricia Blyth

Kenneth Bobroff, Professor of Law, University of New Mexico School of Law 

Roman Boed, Legal Officer, Coordinator, Chambers Support Sub-Unit, UN-ICTR Appeals Chambers, The Hague, The Netherlands

Ida L. Bostian, Teaching Scholar, Center for Social Justice & Public Service, Santa Clara University School of Law

Gregory W. Bowman, Assistant Professor, Mississippi College School of Law

Robert Brookins, Professor of Law, Labor Arbitrator

Antonio Remiro Brotons, Professor of International Law, Universidad Autonoma of Madrid

Aaron Buckley, Human Rights Officer, Human Rights Unit/OSRSG, Compound B, UNAMA, Kabul

William J. Butler, President, American Association for the International Commission of Jurists (AAICJ); Chairman Emeritus, International Commission of Jurists; Honorary Member, International Court of Justice (ICJ)

Dagmar Butte, Adjunct Professor of Law, Lewis & Clark Law School

Michael Byers, Canada Research Chair in Global Politics and International Law, University of British Columbia, Canada

Beverly M. Carl, Professor Emeritus, Southern Methodist University

Kathleen Carrick, Law Library Director and Associate Professor of Law, Case Western Reserve School of Law

Christina Cerna, Adjunct Professor of International Human Rights Law, Georgetown University

Laura E. Chisolm, Professor of Law, Case Western Reserve School of Law

Carol Chomsky, Visiting Professor of Law, William S. Richardson School of Law, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Kevin P. Clements, Professor and Director, The Australian Centre for Peace & Conflict Studies, The University of Queensland

Marjorie Cohn, Professor of Law, Thomas Jefferson School of Law

Liz Ryan Cole, Professor & Director, Vermont Law School

Sandra Coliver, Senior Legal Officer, Open Society Justice Initiative

Mario M. Cuomo, (former) Governor, New York State

Omar M. Dajani, Assistant Professor of Law, University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law

Sandy D’Alemberte, President Emeritus and Law Professor, Florida State University, College of Law

Jose de la Cuesta, Doctor, Catedratico de D. Penal y Director del Instituto Vasco de Criminologia, University of the Basque Country Villa Soroa

Michael C. Davis, J. Landis Martin Professor of Law, Northwestern University Law School

Michael H. Davis, Professor, Cleveland State University College of Law

Vincent M. Del Buono,
Abuja, Nigeria, Founding President, International Society for the Reform of Criminal Law, Former Deputy Secretary General (Political) Amnesty International and former United Nations Inter-regional Adviser for Criminal Prevention and Criminal Justice

Nora V. Demleitner, Professor, Hofstra University Law School

Dan Derby, Professor, Touro Law Center, New York

Joseph F.C. DiMento, Ph.D., J.D., Professor, Law and Society, University of California, Irvine

Mark A. Drumbl, Ethan Allen Faculty Fellow and Associate Professor of Law, Washington & Lee University

Rayburn K. Dudenbostel, Attorney, Dudenbostel Law Offices

Melvyn R. Durchslag, Professor of Law, Case Western Reserve University School of Law

N. Bruce Duthu, Professor of Law, Vermont Law School

George E. Edwards, Professor of Law, Program in International Human Rights Law, Indiana University School of Law at Indianapolis

Marcus Einfeld, Judge, AO QC - Sydney NSW Australia

Valerie Epps, Professor of Law and Director of the International Law Concentration, Suffolk University Law School

Paula Escarameia; Member, UN International Law Commission; Professor of International Law at the Technical and the New Universities of Lisbon, Portugal; Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration; Member of the International Commission of Jurists

Aaron Xavier Fellmeth, Associate Professor, Arizona State University College of Law

Martha A. Fineman, Robert W. Woodruff Professor, Emory University School of Law

Pierre-Michel Fontaine, Ph.D., Lecturer, Graduate Program in Intercultural Human Rights, St. Thomas University School of Law, Miami, FL, USA; Former Director, Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC); Former Principal Officer, Department of International Protection, Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Geneva

Monroe H. Freedman, Professor, Hofstra University Law School

Peter Friedman, Professor of Law, Case Western Reserve School of Law

Emanuela Fronza, Doctor, Lecturer Criminal Law, University of Trento, Italy

Kristen Frost, Attorney at Law, International Association of Penal Law, North American Representative

Vera Gowlland-Debbas, Professor of Public International Law, Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva

Martin Geer, Professor, Boyd School of Law, University of Nevada-Las Vegas

Paul Giannelli, Weatherhead Professor of Law, Case Western Reserve University

T. D. Gill, Professor of Military Law, University of Amsterdam &
Netherlands Defence Academy, Associate Professor International Law, Utrecht University

Phyllis Goldfarb, Professor of Law, Boston College Law School

Candace Goldman, Superior Court, Family & Children’s Bureau Alameda County Superior Court

Vassilios Grammatikas, Lecturer in International Law, Democritus University of Thrace

John P. Grant, Professor of Law, Lewis & Clark School of Law

Michael Green, Senior Partner (Retired), Davis Wright Tremaine

Maurice Greenia, Jr., Artist/Writer, Performer, Support Staff, Library of the University of Detroit Mercy

David E. Guinn, JD, PhD, Executive Director and Adjunct Professor of Law, International Human Rights Law Institute DePaul University College of Law

Kathleen Hamann, Attorney, Foley Hoag LLP

Matthew Happold, Reader in Law, University of Hull

Nancy Hauserman, Associate Dean and Williams Teaching Professor, Tippie College of Business, University of Iowa

Christopher Helm, Attorney, Davis Wright Tremaine

Lynne Henderson, Visiting Professor, Santa Clara University School of Law

Louis Henkin, University Professor Emeritus and Special Service Professor and Chair of the Center for the Study of Human Rights, Columbia University School of Law

Kathy Hessler, Professor, Associate Director of the Center for the Interdisciplinary Study of Conflict and Dispute Resolution, Case Western Reserve School of Law

Stanley Hoffman, Buttenwieser University Professor, Harvard University Center for European Studies

Judith L. Holmes, Professor of Legal Studies, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Scott Horton, Adjunct Professor, Columbia Law School; Attorney, Patterson, Belknap, Webb & Tyler LLP

John Patrick Hyland, Esq., Assistant Public Defender, Cuyahoga County, Ohio

J. Gordon Hylton, Professor, Marquette University Law School

Elaine D. Ingulli, Professor of Business Law & Women’s Studies in Business, Richard Stockton College of New Jersey

Erin Irish, Associate Professor of Biological Sciences, The University of Iowa City, Iowa

Peter Jaszi, Professor of Law, Washington College of Law

Steven Jonas, Professor of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Stony Brook

Ken Katkin, Associate Professor of Law, Salmon P. Chase College of Law

Michael Kelly, Associate Professor of Law, Creighton University School of Law

Raymond E. Kendall, Former Secretary General, INTERPOL

Henry T. King, Professor of Law, Case Western Reserve University School of Law and former Prosecutor at the Nuremberg Tribunal.

Nancy Kinney, Ph.D., Political Science & Public Policy Administration, University of Missouri –  St. Louis

John C. Knechtle, Professor, Florida Coastal School of Law

Dorean M. Koenig, Professor, Thomas M. Cooley Law School

Bailey Kuklin, Professor, Brooklyn Law School

Ralph Lake, former member, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, and Truth and Reconciliation Commission for Sierra Leone

Hope Lewis, Professor of Law, Northeastern University School of Law

Jennifer Long, Attorney, Davis Wright Tremaine LLP

Catherine Lu, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, McGill University

Finn Lynghjem, Judge, BiH State Court, War Crimes Chambers - Sarajevo

Allan Macurdy, Visiting Associate Professor, Boston University School of Law

Holly Maguigan, Professor of Clinical Law, New York University School of Law

Tayyab Mahmud, Professor of Law, Chair Global Perspective Group, John Marshall Law School

Lynn Marcus, Director, Immigration Law Clinic, University of Arizona Rogers College of Law

Elizabeth P. Marsh, Professor of Law, Director of the Criminal Law and Advocacy Concentration Program, Quinnipiac University School of Law

David A. Martin, Warner-Booker Distinguished Professor of International Law, University of Virginia

Francois Mathys, former ambassador of Canada, jurist and professor

Larry May, Professor of Philosophy, Washington University

Chantal Meloni, Research Fellow in Criminal Law, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Italy

Kathryn Mercer, Law Faculty, Case Western Reserve University School of Law

Linda Ross Meyer, Professor of Law, Quinnipiac University School of Law

Binney Miller, Professor of Law, American University, Washington College of Law

Tapan Mohanty

Jenny Moore, Professor of Law, University of New Mexico School of Law, Director of UNM Peace Studies Program

David A. Moran, Assistant Professor (Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure), Wayne State University, Detroit Michigan

Ziyad Motala, Professor of Law, Howard University School of Law

Brian Murphy, Attorney at Law, U.S. Dept. of State (retired)

Ray Murphy, Professor, Irish Centre for Human Rights, National University of Ireland

John T. Murray, Trial Attorney and President, Murray & Murray

Ved P. Nada, John Evans University Professor, Thompson G. Marsh Professor of Law and Director, International Legal Studies Program , University of Denver Sturm College of Law

James A.R. Nafziger, Thomas B. Stoel Professor of Law and Director of International Programs, Willamette University College of Law, and Chair, Executive Committee, American Branch, International Law Association
 
Linda Neuman, Attorney & Counselor at Law

Thomas R. Newby, Adjunct Professor of Law, Indiana University School of Law at Indianapolis

John E. Noyes, Professor of Law, California Western School of Law

Molly T. O’Brien, Associate Professor of Law, University of Akron School of Law

Lorys Oddi, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emerita, Northern Illinois University

Laura E. Oren, Law Foundation Professor, University of Houston Law Center

Hari M. Osofsky, Visiting Assistant Professor, University of Oregon School of Law

Richard Ottinger, Professor of Law, Pace Law School

Patrick Parenteau, Professor of Law, Director Environmental and Natural Resources Law Clinic, Vermont Law School

Dr. Andreas L. Paulus, Lecturer in International Law, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany

Alain Pellet, Professor, University of Paris X-Nanterre, Member & former Chairman, International Law Commission of the U.N.

Michael L. Perlin, Director, International Mental Disability Law Reform Project; Director, Online Mental Disability Law Program, New York Law School

Margaret Pfeiffer, Partner, Sullivan & Cromwell

John T. Philipsborn, Criminal Defense Lawyer and Chair, Amicus Curiae Committee; Adjunct Professor at New College of Law, California Attorneys for Criminal Justice

Neil Popovic, Shareholder, Heller Ehrman LLP and lecturer, Boalt Hall School of Law

William P. Quigley, Janet Mary Riley Professor of Law, Loyola University New Orleans

Carole Raimondi, President, Women Lawyers of Alameda County

Alan Raphael, Associate Professor, Loyola University Chicago School of Law

Martha Rayner, Associate Clinical Professor of Law, Fordham University School of Law

Georges Reiners, International Judge, State Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina (War Crimes Chamber)

Ira P. Robbins, Barnard T. Welsh Scholar and Professor of Law, American University, Washington College of Law

Naomi Roht-Arriaza, Professor of Law, University of California, Hastings College of Law

Florence W. Roisman, Michael D. McCormick Professor of Law, Indiana University School of Law at Indianapolis

Amy Royalty, Immigration Attorney, Law Offices of Carol L. Edward

Dan Royalty, Associate Attorney, Preston, Gates & Ellis LLP

Constance L. Rudnick, Esq., Professor of Law, Massachusetts School of Law

Natsu Taylor Saito, Professor of Law, Georgia State University College of Law

Jaume Saura, Professor of International Law, Universitat de Barcelona. ; Visiting Professor, Loyola Law School (fall 2005)

William J. Scanlon, PhD, JD; Principal, The Scanlon Law Office

Dan Schaffer, Professor of Law, Northeastern University School of Law

Barbara A. Schatz, Clinical Professor of Law, Columbia University School of Law

Anne Schroth, Clinical Professor of Law, Poverty Law Outreach Director, Michigan Clinical Law Program, Poverty Law Outreach Program

Andrew Shacknove, University Lecturer in Law, University of Oxford

Robert A. Sedler, Distinguished Professor of Law, Wayne State University, Detroit Michigan

Toni Seroshek, Attorney, Family Medicine Physician Assistant, Monticello, MN

Jerome J. Shestack, Esq., Attorney at Law, Wolf, Block, Schorr and Solis-Cohen LLP

Geoffrey B. Shields, President and Dean and Professor of Law, Vermont Law School

Mark Sidel, Professor of Law, University of Iowa

Marjorie A. Silver, Professor, Touro Law Center, New York

Andrew Silverman, Joseph M.  Livermore Professor & Director, Clinical Programs, Rogers College of Law, University of Arizona

Ronald C. Smith, Professor, The John Marshall Law School, Chicago

Neal R. Sonnett, P.A., Attorney at Law, Miami, Florida

Dr. Chandra Lekha Sriram, Professor of Human Rights, University of East London School of Law

Irwin P. Stotzky, Professor of Law and Director of the Center for the Study of Human Rights, University of Miami School of Law

John Strait, Associate Professor of Law, Seattle University School of Law

John Strawson, Reader in Law, University of East London (UK)

Pamela Stuart, Attorney at Law, Pamela B. Stuart, Attorney & Counsellor at Law

Allen N. Sultan, Professor Emeritus, University of Dayton

Mark Summers, Professor, Barry University

Brian Z. Tamanaha, Professor, St. John's University School of Law

James Taylor, Visiting Clinical Supervisor, University of Montana School of Law

Peter Teachout, Professor of Constitutional Law, Vermont Law School

Adam Thurschwell, Associate Professor of Law, Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, Cleveland State University

Johannes van Aggelen, Senior Human Rights Official, United Nations

H.E. Christine Van den Wyngaert, Judge at the ICTY, The Hague

Jon M. Van Dyke, Professor of Law, William S. Richardson School of Law, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Beth Van Schaak, Assistant Professor of Law, Santa Clara University School of Law

Maria Velikonja, Velikonja Consulting,

Ettie Ward, Professor of Law, St. John’s University School of Law

Melissa Waters, Associate Professor, Washington and Lee College School of Law

Peter Weiss, Vice President, International Federation for Human Rights

David Weissbrodt, Regents Professor and Fredrikson & Byron Professor of Law, University of Minnesota

Burns H. Weston, Bessie Dutton Murray Distinguished Professor of Law Emeritus and Senior Scholar, UI Center for Human Rights (UICHR), University of Iowa; and Visiting Distinguished Professor of International Law and Policy, The Vermont Law School 

Barbara White, Writer/Historian, Retired Teacher of Nantucket Public Schools

Philip H. Wile, Professor, University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law

Peter Wilkitzki, Dir. General Criminal Law, Federal Ministry of Justice
Assistant Secretary General, International Association of Penal Law

Gabriel Wilner, Charles Kirbo Chair in International Law, School of Law, University of Georgia

Randall E. Winn, Chair, Washington State Bar Association, Section on World Peace Through Law

Mikhail Wladimiroff, attorney at law, Wladimiroff & Waling, The Hague

Mark E. Wojcik, Director, Global Legal Studies, The John Marshall Law School, Chicago

Jennifer Wright, Associate Professor of Law, Elder Practice Group, Internprofessional Center for Counseling and Legal Services

Bruce Zagaris, Attorney at Law, Berliner Corcoran & Rowe LLP

Maryann Zavez, Staff Attorney/Professor of Law, South Royalton Legal Clinic, Vermont Law School

Mitchell Zimmerman, Executive Director, Rule of Law Society

The Cox Center awards up to 35 grants every summer to support international law internships around the globe.